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By Franz Schurrman

First in Seattle and now in Washington DC, left and right have come together to trash globalism. Strange bedfellows or just bedfellows? An answer can be found by looking at the word "globalism".

Widely used -ism words give a sense of how public opinion interprets the flows of contemporary history. The wide usage of the word globalism suggests public opinion believes there is a driving force that is replacing the US with one world.

Both left and right now see globalism as their main enemy. Noam Chomsky freely uses the word as does Pat Buchanan. That means they believe there are powerful forces driving the globalisation. Both agree it is the multinational corporations and agencies like the IMF that promote multinationalisation.

Not so long ago left and right used very different -ism words to describe their ideological enemies. For the left the main enemy was capitalism and for the right it was socialism. The two were irreconcilable opposites.

The root word of capitalism, "capital," meant money to acquire means of production in order to reap a profit. The suffix -ism made it an ideology that operated through free markets.

The left called for an eventual abolition of capitalism and its  replacement by socialism. Under socialism strong government representing the working class would bring equality and equity into the country's economic life.

The right regarded socialism as an ideology that stunted economic growth. Look at the Soviet Union, they said. It has a strong socialist government but can't feed its own people. Bring freedom and free markets to Russia and soon enough prosperity would arise.

The main ideological code word for the left was class; for the right it was economic freedom. But now with globalism their common foe both code words have been left behind.

Left and right agree the multinational corporations that dominate the New World Order undermine the power both of the working class and of God-fearing patriotic citizens.

Over the last two decades both left and right have been moving in new ideological and political directions that have narrowed the gap between them.

By advocating diversity and multiculturalism, the left has taken over a key concept of the right: identity. Identity implies identity groups. And identity groups are those marked by racial, ethnic and religious differences.

The right has always believed in differences. It rejected the left's contention that regardless of identity differences, in the end we are all human beings. The only differences that remain, the left contended, are those of class.

Yet now various right-wing groups have been moving in directions once advocated by the left.

The religious right, which historically was racist and exclusionary, has lately been proselytising among people of every race, culture and language.

For example, people of colour from all over the world have been  flocking to the Mormon Church which not so long ago had racial   restrictions. And for years now, Pat Buchanan has been courting the working class. In Washington the Teamsters are among his most ardent boosters.

At the same time the left has been moving towards nationalism.  Leftists call for a strong government to not only protect the rights of workers but also protect the environment, advance human rights, and broaden entitlements.

Many leftist intellectuals have hoped that one world would break up into three - Europe, East Asia and America. So much for the great slogan of the Communist Manifesto: "Workers of the world unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains."

Besides agreeing on globalism, both left and right agree on two other -ism words now popularised in America: racism and terrorism.

Racism began as a left concept. In the 1960s the worst racists were Southern segregationists. The left played a leadership role in the Civil Rights movement. But now just about the entire right - except for fringe neo-Nazi groups - accepts the concept of racial equality.

Even Bob Jones University had to modify its stubborn racism. So as the left concentrates its oppositional stance on globalist, environmentalist and human rights issues, the right finishes cleaning out the last vestiges of racism in its ranks.

Terrorism, practically speaking, refers mainly to neo-Nazi and Islamic fundamentalist violence. There is little if any sympathy for either on the right and nothing but loathing for both on the left.

So globalism remains the one driving issue for both left and right. Buchanan keeps moving towards endangered American workers and the left moves away from its third world affiliations.

It is not inconceivable that left and right will, in the coming years, fuse into a single national front in opposition to the globalist establishment that runs the country.

from MISAnet/Pacific News Service

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ILO Governing Body Welcomes Report of World Commission

on the Social Dimension of Globalization

Thursday 25 March 2004
For immediate release

GENEVA (ILO News) – Employer, worker and government representatives at the Governing Body of the International Labour Organization (ILO) today welcomed the report of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization as a “balanced” and “coherent” analysis of the social impact of globalization.

Ministers of labour, representatives of worker and employer organizations and international agencies expressed widespread appreciation for the Commission’s work, variously describing the report as “ground breaking” and “a landmark” in the debate on globalization.

          “The developing countries have long-advocated a realistic rather than an idealistic approach to globalization and we view this report as a step in that direction,” said the delegate from Pakistan.

A Fair Globalization: Creating Opportunities for All was issued in February by the World Commission and reflected two years of wide-ranging debate over the social aspects of globalization. The report called for an “urgent rethink” of current policies and institutions of the governance of globalization. The World Commission */ was co-chaired by President Tarja Halonen of Finland and President Benjamin William Mkapa of Tanzania.

          President Mkapa presented the report to the ILO’s Working Party on the Social Dimension of Globalization, the first time an African Head of State has addressed the ILO’s Governing Body. In his comments, he said, “the potential of globalization for good or bad is immense. It is a force with many positive aspects that can be harnessed for humanity’s collective well being, but some of its elements have to be tamed for the sake of our common civility and existence…

ILO Director-General Juan Somavia emphasized that the World Commission reflected  the wide diversity of opinion on globalization but their report had identified a common approach and agreement on realistic proposals for action. “We deliberately brought together a non-like-minded group of eminent people and their report shows that dialogue can be a creative force for urgently needed change” Mr. Somavia said.

During the two-day discussion, delegates and participants from international organizations highlighted many aspects of the report as providing important contributions to thinking and policy development in the ILO and elsewhere, as well as specific proposals to ensure the benefits of globalization are to be more fairly distributed. The report’s recommendation that decent work be a global goal was endorsed by all speakers.

The Employer’s spokesperson highlighted that the report recognizes that the benefits of globalization depend on respect for universally shared values and principles in the context of market economies and democracy. Similarly, the Workers spokesperson noted that during the debate practically all speakers had endorsed the Commission’s strong emphasis on the importance of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work to the building of a fair globalization. 

Canadian Minister of Labour Ms. Claudette Bradshaw said, “We accept the simple economic principle that those who produce the products and services in the economy should also be able to consume them”. Several delegates quoted a sentence in the report, which came from a consultation in the Philippines, that, “There is no point to a globalization that reduces the price of a child’s shoes, but costs the father his job”.

The Korean delegate said: “As a country directly hit and suffering from the financial crisis in the late 1990s, Korea concurs with the Commission on its observations on the need for social protection, creation of decent work and open social dialogue, among others”.

Delegates also expressed widespread support for the report’s emphasis on better, more democratic and more accountable governance at both national and global levels. Several delegates argued that action at national and international levels had to proceed in tandem. The focus on meeting people’s needs and aspirations at the local level was also highlighted.

Gerd Andres, the German Minister of Labour, supported “the calls of the World Commission for decent work for all. Workers with decent work can leave poverty behind them, feed their family, provide education and training for their children, improve their position in society and become fully aware of their cultural and social rights and exercise their rights to political participation. The further we move down this path, the less fear there will be of the economic repercussions of globalization.

As the French delegate said, “Globalisation cannot be cut up into slices”.  Therefore, the reports’ call for greater policy coherence in the multilateral system was widely welcomed. Among its suggestions was a “Policy Coherence Initiative” among international organizations to deal with the key issues of growth, investment and employment. In this context, the representative of the World Bank said the report “will serve us all well in the international community”.

The South African delegate commended the Commission for re-iterating the importance of multilateralism and said “multilateralism and the role of the United Nations, of which the ILO is an essential part, are more important for those of us who come from countries where the majority of our people face the daily challenges of poverty and deprivation”. The US delegate referred to a special role for the ILO in the process of dialogue on the social dimension of globalization “to put a human face on what is often regarded as the impersonal process of globalization”. 

The representative of the European Commission welcomed the report’s emphasis on reform of global governance. She said “given the current imbalance in the international system, which focuses more on economic than on social issues and in which trade and economic organizations have more power, there is a need to strengthen the social dimension and to improve coordination between organizations and all stakeholders.

Several other issues raised in the report received favourable comments, including the emphasis on social dialogue and the building of consensus which had been the hallmark of the Commission’s own work. The Brazilan minister of Labour, Ricardo Berzoini commented, that his government “confers considerable value on the exercise undertaken by the ILO. There is no stronger tool for promoting changes than dialogue. 

Many delegates supported the call for fair rules for trade and finance, as well as reform of the global financial architecture. Many speakers highlighted the serious negative impact of industrial countries’ agricultural subsidies on developing countries and the need for greater market access.

          The need to increase development assistance also received widespread support. Many speakers underscored the significance of debt relief and increased ODA to overcome inequality both within and between countries and to eradicate poverty.

The need to address the impact of increasing migration for work on the migrants themselves and origin and host countries through multilateral dialogue and other initiatives was highlighted. Many delegates looked forward to the upcoming discussions in the International Labour Conference on migration.

Delegates said they looked forward to proposals Mr. Somavia is to present to the International Labour Conference in June on ILO follow-up action and to the further consultations with the ILO’s tripartite constituents.

*/      A Fair Globalization: Creating Opportunities for All, World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, International Labour Office, Geneva 2004, ISBN 92-2-115426-2. See

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Martin Buber on Communication

by Stefan Sonderling


The existentialist approach and Buber's theory offer a view of communication that is derived from their basic assumptions about communication, its human participants and the way communication should be studied. In other words, the existentialist approach to communication contains a set of beliefs or assumptions that are made about the phenomenon of communication (ontological assumptions), the human participants (anthropological assumptions) and the way the phenomenon should be studied (epistemological assumptions). 

For example, an anthropological assumption within the existentialist approach maintains that the human being does not have a fixed or predetermined nature that is ever-becoming. This means that the person has a choice in determining and actively constructing his or her own mode of existence. Such a mode of existence is actualised in and through communication with other people. From this follows an ontological assumption that communication is a dynamic human activity through which the quality of human existence is constituted and expressed. 

Communication may take different forms, each of which reveals a particular degree of self-actualisation and awareness of other people. Self-awareness is a prerequisite for genuine communication and is an indication of an authentic mode of existence, while an unauthentic mode of existence is characterised by a lack of respect for the other person. Each person is free to choose one or other mode of existence. 

Buber's theory of communication as dialogue 

The starting point for a discussion of Buber's view of the life of dialogue is found in his assumptions about people and the creative power of communication to construct the human world. 

Buber's view is that people are able to enter into relationships and to distinguish themselves from objects and other people and to explain their relationships with the world. People are not just there as objects among other objects. People exist by distancing themselves from other people and things and, as a result, they can enter into relationships with the world. Entering into relationships is dependent on the person's attitudes towards the world and these are characterised by a twofold principle of polar opposites. Inherent in people is the ability to simultaneously display two modes of existence that are expressed by communication relationships: I-you and I-it. 

The I-you relationships is expressive of authentic human existence and implies that the person, as an "I". reaches out to a "you" with his or her whole being. Unauthentic existence is expressed by the I-it relationship whereby the person uses and experiences other people as if they were objects. However, while these two basic relationships are indicative of different modes of existence, they are both, nevertheless, important and form an integral part of human existence. 

Entering into relationships and expressing an attitude towards the world also means that people enter into communication by which and through which they constitute themselves. In fact, communication is the primary fact of human existence. 

The I-you relationship is a primary attitude that one person can adopt towards another with whom he or she communicates. By the act of identifying oneself as an "I", one simultaneously addresses the other person as "you". By speaking the basic word-pair a person does not merely state something that exists outside these words, but by the act of speaking them, the person establishes a mode of existence. 

The I-you relationship is characterised by the fact that the "I" and the "you" are present to each other and that involvement with each other is reciprocal and open. For example, when a person adopts the I-you attitude, people, things and works of art can speak to him and her and become more than mere objects. On the other hand, in the I-it attitude, human beings, living things and works of art are regarded merely as objects to be used and manipulated. 

The I-it relationship is characterised by experience, manipulation and use of another person as if he or she was an object. Such a relationship is one-sided and has no reciprocal participation. 

An important difference between the I-you and the I-it relationships lies in the manner in which the "I" approaches the relationship. In the I-you relationship the "I" reaches out to a "you" from lived experience, from the inner authentic self, and the human being opens himself and herself to the other person. When the "I" reveals himself and herself in the I-it relationship, it is not an expression of the authentic self. In this attitude the person does not reveal his or her authentic self. 

The existence of the two primary word-pairs, I-you and I-it and the fact that "I" does not exist by itself but is always related to its corresponding "you" or "it", shows that all human life is to be found between the human being and the world. Life is essentially a complex of personal relationships. The I-it relationship designates a mode of existence that is based on one-sided use and experience. However, this experience is not a true relationship and the person who experiences and uses others does not participate in the world. The I-you word-pair establishes a true relationship between two human beings. The relationship is in neither the one person nor the other but exists between them. The "between" is the interhuman sphere, a space that allows a person to become what he or she really is. In this space of dialogue between people, two ways of becoming a self are evident: being and seeming. Being is a true mode of existence for people while seeming is a false and unauthentic mode of existence. Bubrt likens the encounter between the "I" and "you" to a narrow ridge. Based on a true I-you relationship as a mode of being, a we-relationship can be established between a group of people who form a true community. 

Buber also describes another, ultimate, relationship: the I-eternal-you. This is a perfect communication relationship into which a person can enter. However, the way to a perfect relationship with the I-eternal-you (God or a supreme being) depends on the person's ability to enter into authentic relationships with other people. In fact, in every authentic I-you relationship, a person can glimpse a view of the I-eternal-you. In every meeting between "I" and "you" we become aware of the ultimate reality and meaning in life. 

A characteristic of all human relationships is the fact that they are never permanent but must be actively established and renewed. This is particularly so in the I-you relationship which demands constant effort. The I-it relationship is, of course, easier to maintain because the world of things exists in space and time and seems solid, while the I-you relationship is an event and is characterised by temporality. 

While the I-you and I-it relationships sem to be radically opposed to each other, they are nevertheless interlinked. It is a characteristic of human existence that both are equally important and necessary for human life. As Buber (Perspectives 1992: 102) points out: "Without it a human being cannot live. But whoever lives only with that is not human". 

Critical evaluation of Buber's contributions to an understanding of communication 

Buber's ideas about dialogue and authentic human existence make an important contribution to our understanding of communication. Buber shows that dialogue is the central aspect of human life because it both constitutes and expresses the human mode of existence. However, by his emphasis on the individual participants in communication, Buber does not consider the role of the medium in influencing interpersonal relationships or the social positions of participants. 

This is an excerpt of a UNISA newsletter for communication students, compiled by Stefan Sonderling of the Communication department.

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Trauma, Bullying, Workplace Violence, Stress 


48 Laws of Power
Quick References to Good Articles
Over 100 articles from FINDARTICLES.COM


The 48 Laws of Power 
by Robert Greene, Joost Elffers

Law 1 - Never outshine the master.
'Always make those above you feel comfortable superior. In your desire to please or impress them, do no go too far in displaying your talents or your might accomplish the opposite - inspire fear and insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.'

Law 2 - Never put too much trust in friends, learn how to use enemies.
'Be ware of friends - they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They also become spoiled and tyrannical. But hire a former enemy and he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.'

Law 3 – Conceal your intentions.
‘Keep people off-balance and in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelop them in enough smoke, and by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.

Law 4 – Always say less than necessary.
‘When you are trying to impress people with words, the more you say, the more common you appear, and the less in control. Even if you are saying something banal, it will seem original if you make it vague, open-ended, and sphinx like. Powerful people impress and intimidate by saying less. The more you say, the more likely you are to say something foolish.’

Law 5 – So much depends on reputation – Guard it with your life.
‘Reputation is the cornerstone of power. Through reputation alone you can intimidate and win; once it slips, however you are vulnerable, and will be attacked on all sides. Make your reputation unassailable. Always be alert to potential attacks and thwart them before they happen. Meanwhile, learn to destroy your enemies by opening holes in their own reputation. Then stand aside and let public opinion hang them.’

Law 6 – Court attention at all cost.
‘Everything is judged by its appearance; what is unseen counts for nothing. Never let yourself get lost in the crowd, then buried in oblivion. Stand out. Be conspicuous, at all cost. Make yourself a magnet of attention by appearing larger, more colorful, more mysterious than the bland an timid masses.’

Law 7 – Get other to do the work for you, but always take the credit.
‘Use the wisdom, knowledge, and legwork of other people to further your own cause. Not only will such assistance save you valuable time and energy, it will give you a godlike aura of efficiency and speed. In the end your helpers will be forgotten and you will be remembered. Never do yourself what others can do for you.’

Law 8 – Make other people come to you – Use bait if necessary.
‘When you force the other person to act, you are the one in control. It is always better to make your opponent come to you, abandoning his own plans in the process. Lure him with fabulous gains – then attack. You hold the cards.’

Law 9 – Win through your actions, never through argument.
‘Any momentary triumph you think you have gained through argument is really a Pyrrhic victory. The resentment and ill will you stir up is stronger and lasts longer than any momentary change of opinion. It is much more powerful to get other to agree with you through your actions, without saying a word. Demonstrate, do not explicate.’

Law 10 – Infection: Avoid the unhappy and unlucky.
‘You can die from someone else’s misery – emotional states are as infectious as diseases. You may feel you are helping the drowning man but you are only precipitating your own disaster. The unfortunate sometimes draw misfortunes on themselves; they will also draw it on you. Associate with the happy and fortunate instead.’

Law 11 – Learn to keep people dependent on you.
‘To maintain your independence you must always be needed and wanted. The more you are relied on, the more freedom you have. Make people depend on you for their happiness and prosperity and you have nothing to fear. Never teach them enough so that they can do without you.’

Law 12 – Use selective honesty and generosity to disarm your victim.
‘One sincere and honest move will cover over dozens of dishonest ones. Openhearted gestures of honesty and generosity bring down the guard of even the most suspicious people. Once your selective honesty opens a hole in their armor, you can deceive and manipulate at will. A timely gift – a Trojan horse – will serve the same purpose.’

Law 13 – When asking for help, appeal to people’s self-interest, never to their mercy or gratitude.
‘If you need to turn to an ally for help, do not bother to remind him of your past assistance and good deeds. He will find a way to ignore you. Instead, uncover something in your request, or in your alliance with him, that will benefit him, and emphasize it out of all proportion. He will respond enthusiastically when he sees something to be gained for himself.’

Law 14 – Pose as a friend, work as a spy.
‘Knowing about your rival is critical. Use spies to gather valuable information that will keep you a step ahead. Better still: Play the spy yourself. In polite social encounters, learn to probe. Ask indirect questions to get people to reveal their weaknesses and intentions. There is no occasion that is not an opportunity for artful spying.’

Law 15 – Crush your enemy totally.
‘All great leaders since Moses have known that a feared enemy must be crushed completely. (Sometimes they have learned this the hard way.) If one ember is left alight, no matter how dimply it smolders, a fire will eventually break out. More is lost through stopping halfway than through total annihilation. The enemy will recover, and will seek revenge. Crush him, not only in body but in spirit.’

Law 16 – Use absence to increase respect and honor.
‘Too much circulation makes the price go down. The more you are seen and heard from, the more common you appear. If you are already established in a group, temporary withdrawal from it will make you more talked about, even more admired. You must learn when to leave. Create value through scarcity.’

Law 17 – Keep others in suspended terror: Cultivate an air of unpredictability.
‘Humans are creatures of habit with an insatiable need to see familiarity in other people’s actions. Your predictability gives them a sense of control. Turn the tables: Be deliberately unpredictable. Behavior that seems to have no consistency or purpose will keep them off-balance, and they will wear themselves out trying to explain your moves. Taken to an extreme, this strategy can intimidate and terrorize.’

Law 18 – Do not build fortresses to protect yourself – Isolation is dangerous.
‘The world is dangerous and enemies are everywhere – everyone has to protect themselves. A fortress seems the safest. But isolation exposes you to more dangers than it protects you from – it cuts you off from valuable information, it makes you conspicuous and an easy target. Better to circulate among people, find allies, and mingle. You are shielded from your enemies by the crowd.’

Law 19 – Know who you’re dealing with – Do not offend the wrong person.
‘There are many different kinds of people in the world, and you can never assume that everyone will react to your strategies in the same way. Deceive or outmaneuver some people and they will spend the rest of their lives seeking revenge. They are wolves in lambs’ clothing. Choose your victims and opponents carefully, then - never offend or deceive the wrong person.’

Law 20 – Do not commit to anyone.
‘It is the fool who always rushes to take sides. Do not commit to any side or cause but yourself. By maintaining your independence, you become the masters of others – playing people against one another, making them pursue you.’

Law 21 – Play a sucker to catch a sucker – Seem dumber than your mark.
‘No one likes feeling stupider than the next person. The trick, then, is to make your victims feel smart – and not just smart, but smarter than you are. Once convinced of this, they will never suspect that you may have ulterior motives.’

Law 22 – Use the surrender tactic: Transform weakness into power.
‘When you are weaker, never fight for honor’s sake; choose surrender instead. Surrender gives you time to recover, time to torment and irritate your conqueror, time to wait for his power to wane. Do not give him the satisfaction of fighting and defeating you – surrender first. By turning the other seek you infuriate and unsettle him. Make surrender a tool of power.’

Law 23 – Concentrate your forces.
‘Conserve your forces and energies by keeping them concentrated at their strongest point. You gain more by finding a rich mine and mining it deeper, than by flitting from one shallow mine to another – intensity defeats extensity every time. When looking for sources of power to elevate you, find the one key patron, the fat cow will give you milk for a long time to come.’

Law 24 – Play the perfect courtier.
‘The perfect courtier thrives in a world where everything resolves around power and political dexterity. He has mastered the art of indirection; he flatters, yields to superiors, and asserts power over others in the most oblique and graceful manner. Learn and apply the laws of courtiership and there will be no limit to how far you can rise in the court.’

Law 25 – Re-create yourself.
‘Do not accept the roles that society foists on you. Re-create yourself by forging a new identity, one that commands attention and never bores the audience. Be the master of your own image rather than letting others define it for you. Incorporate dramatic devices into your public gestures and actions – your power will be enhance and your character will seem larger than life.’

Law 26 – Keep your hands clean.
‘You must seem a paragon of civility and efficiency: Your hands are never soiled by mistakes and nasty deeds. Maintain such a spotless appearance by using others as scapegoats and cat’s- paws to disguise your involvement.

Law 27 – Play on people’s need to believe to create a cult like following.
‘People have an overwhelming desire to believe in something. Become the focal point of such desire by offering them a cause, a new faith to follow. Keep your words vague but full of promise; emphasize enthusiasm over rationality and clear thinking. Give your new disciple rituals to perform, ask them to make sacrifices on your behalf. In the absence of organized religion and grand causes, your new belief system will bring you untold power.’

Law 28 – Enter action with boldness.
‘If you are unsure of a course of action, do not attempt it. Your doubts and hesitations will infect your execution. Timidity is dangerous: Better to enter with boldness. Any mistakes you commit through audacity are easily corrected with more audacity. Everyone admires the bold; no one honors the timid.’

Law 29 – Play all the way to the end.
‘The ending is everything. Plan all the way to it, taking into account all the possible consequences, obstacles, and twists of fortune that might reverse your hard work and give glory to others. By planning to the end you will not be overwhelmed by circumstances and you will know when to stop. Gently guide fortune and help determine the future by thinking far ahead.’

Law 30 – Make your accomplishments seem effortless.
‘Your actions must seem natural and executed with ease. All the toil and practice that go into them, and also all the clever tricks, must be concealed. When you act, act effortlessly, as if you could do much more. Avoid the temptation of revealing how hard you work – it only raises questions. Teach no one your tricks or they will be used against you.’

Law 31 – Control the options: Get others to play with the cards you deal.
‘The best deceptions are the ones that seem to give the other person a choice: Your victims feel that they are in control, but are actually your puppets. Give people options that come out in your favor whichever one they choose. Force them to make choice between the lesser of the two evils, both of which serve your purpose. Put them on the horns of a dilemma: They are gored wherever they turn.’

Law 32 – Play to people’s fantasies.
‘The truth is often avoided because it is ugly and unpleasant. Never appeal to truth and reality unless you are prepared for the anger that comes from disenchantment. Life is so harsh and distressing that people who can manufacture romance or conjure up fantasy are like oases in the desert: Everyone flocks to them. There is great power in tapping into the fantasies of the masses.’

Law 33 – Discover each man’s thumbscrew.
‘Everyone has a weakness, a gap in the castle wall. The weakness is usually an insecurity, an uncontrollable emotion or need; it can also be a small secret pleasure. Either way, once found, it is a thumbscrew you can turn to your advantage.’

Law 34 – Be royal in your own fashion: Act like a king to be treated like one.
‘The way you carry yourself will often determine how you are treated: In the long run, appearing vulgar or common will make people disrespect you. For a king respects himself and inspires the same sentiment in others. By acting regally and confident of your powers, you make yourself seem destined to wear a crown.’

Law 35 – Master the art of timing.
‘Never seem to be in a hurry – hurrying betrays a lack of control over yourself, and over time. Always seem patient, as if you know that everything will come to you eventually. Become a detective of the right moment; sniff out the spirit of the times, the trends that will carry you to power. Learn to stand back when the time is not yet ripe, and to strike fiercely when it has reached fruition.’

Law 36 – Disdain things you cannot have: Ignoring them is the best revenge.
‘By acknowledging a petty problem you give it existence and credibility. The more attention you pay an enemy, the stronger you make him; and a small mistake is often made worse and more visible when you try to fix it. It is sometimes best to leave things alone. If there is something you want but cannot have, show contempt for it. The less interest you reveal, the more superior you seem.’

Law 37 – Create compelling spectacles.
‘Striking imagery and grand symbolic gestures create the aura of power – everyone responds to them. Stage spectacles for those around you, then, full of arresting visuals and radiant symbols that heighten your presence. Dazzled by appearances, no one will notice what you are really doing.’

Law 38 – Think as you like but behave like others.
‘If you make a show of going against the times, flaunting your unconventional ideas and unorthodox ways, people will think that you only want attention and that you look down upon them. They will find a way to punish you for making them feel inferior. It is far safer to blend in and nurture the common touch. Share your originality only with tolerant friends and those who are sure to appreciate your uniqueness.’

Law 39 – Stir up waters to catch fish.
‘Anger and emotion are strategically counterproductive. You must always stay calm and objective. But if you can make your enemies angry while staying calm yourself, you gain a decided advantage. Put your enemies off-balance: Find the chink in their vanity through which you can rattle them and you hold the strings.’

Law 40 – Despise the free lunch.
‘What is offered for free is dangerous – it usually involves either a trick or a hidden obligation. What has worth is worth paying for. By paying your own way you stay clear of gratitude, guilt, and deceit. It is also often wise to pay the full price – there is no cutting corners with excellence. Be lavish with your money and keep it circulating, for generosity is a sign and a magnet for power.

Law 41 – Avoid stepping into a great man’s shoes.
‘What happens first always appears better and more original than what comes after. If you succeed a great man or a have a famous parent, you will have to accomplish double their achievements to outshine them. Do not get lost in their shadow, or stuck in a past not if your own making: Establish your own name and identity by changing course. Slay the overbearing father, disparage his legacy, and gain power by shining in your own way.’

Law 42 – Strike the shepherd and the sheep will scatter.
‘Trouble can often be traced to a single strong individual – the stirrer, the arrogant underling, the poisoner of goodwill. If you allow such people to room to operate, others will succumb to their influence. Do not wait for the troubles they cause to multiply, do not try to negotiate with them – they are irredeemable. Neutralize their influence by isolating or banishing them. Strike at the source of the trouble and the sheep will scatter.’

Law 43 – Work on the hearts and minds of others.
‘Coercion creates a reaction that will eventually work against you. You must seduce others into wanting to move in your direction. A person you have seduced becomes your loyal pawn. And the way to seduce others is to operate on their individual psychologies and weaknesses. Soften up the resistant by working on their emotions, playing on what they hold dear and what they fear. Ignore the hearts and minds of others and they will grow to hate you.’

Law 44 – Disarm and infuriate with the mirror effect.
The mirror reflects reality, but it is also the perfect tool for deception. When your mirror your enemies, doing exactly as they do, they cannot figure out your strategy. The Mirror Effect mocks and humiliates them, making them overreact. By holding up a mirror to their psyches, you seduce them with the illusion that you share their values; by holding up a mirror to their actions, you teach them a lesson. Few can resist the power of the Mirror Effect.’

Law 45 – Preach the need for change, but never reform too much at once.
‘Everyone understands the need for change in the abstract, but on the day-to-day level people are creatures of habit. Too much innovation is traumatic, and will lead to revolt. If you are new to a position of power, or an outsider trying to build a power base, make a show of respecting the old way of doing things. If change is necessary, make it feel like a gentle improvement on the past.’

Law 46 – Never appear too perfect.
‘Appearing better than others is always dangerous, but most dangerous of all it to appear to have no faults or weaknesses. Envy creates silent enemies. It is smart to occasionally display defects, and admit to harmless vices, in order to deflect envy and appear more human and approachable. Only gods and the dead can seem perfect with impunity.’

Law 47 – Do not go past the mark you aimed for; in victory, learn when to stop.
‘The moment of victory is often the moment of greatest peril. In the heat of victory, arrogance and overconfidence can push you past the goal you had aimed for, and by going too far, you make more enemies than you can defeat. Do not allow success to go to your head. There is no substitute for strategy and careful planning. Set a goal, and when you reach it, stop.’

Law 48 – Assume formlessness.
‘By taking a shape, by having a visible plan, you open yourself to attack. Instead of taking a form for your enemy to grasp, keep yourself adaptable and on the move. Accept the fact that nothing is certain and no law is fixed. The best way to protect yourself is to be as fluid and formless as water; never bet on stability or lasting order. Everything changes.’



Quick References to Good Articles


The detrimental effects of stress at work appear to be at least partly mediated by increased heart rate reactivity, increased systolic blood pressure level, and lower vagal tone.  Read the full article by going to the follwing website:

You can read the Sunday Times article (South Africa) on bullying by going to:

World labour warns against the woes of globalisation

The effects of depression in the Workplace

Studies find narcissists most aggressive when critised

Workplace bullies flex their muscles

Workplace violence greatest security threat to corporate America, Pinkerton Survey finds

Danger: Toxic Company 

Bullying and bad genes 

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